Hot Air Fryer For Low Fat Frying

Pan fried nourishment is an extremely top notch and would have been each one’s most loved notwithstanding its unfortunate high-fat substance. Things being what they are, is it conceivable to sear without utilizing oil? Is it conceivable to cook sans oil or low-fat broiled sustenance that is additionally delectable?

Oil-Free Hot Air Fryer

The hot air fryer is a cutting-edge kitchen apparatus that enables you to broil sustenance without oil. Presently, how could that be? If you somehow managed to advise that to Grandma, she would most likely reveal to you that the nourishment would taste frightfully dry and bland. All things considered, profound searing in a lot of oil has dependably been the best approach to eat broiled nourishment with that extremely pleasant smash outwardly, clammy and delicate inside.

With the creative hot air cooker, you will at present get the fresh outside and soggy inside impact yet short the fat. This getting the opportunity to be extremely famous sound fryer cooks the nourishment utilizing hot air.

The high warmth seals in the nourishment juices and it gets the chance to cook quickly because of the little limit of the machine. The mainstream hot air broiling machines in the market are between 1.8 to beneath 4 pounds cooking limit.

The sustenance sits on the cooking bin and gets besieged by quick moving hot air at all edges. This guarantees quick and notwithstanding cooking.

What Are The Benefits Of The Hot Air Fryer?

No oil or and no more, a tablespoon of oil for searing bringing about lessened calories admission.

The air fryer is profoundly flexible and can be utilized for searing, flame broiling, simmering and preparing; one machine for the greater part of your cooking needs.

You can cook for all intents and purposes a wide range of nourishment in the fryer, regardless of whether solidified or crude sustenance stuff.

Quick cooking circumstances with most sustenance cooked in less than 30 minutes.

Who Would Benefit Most From The Hot Air Fryer?

Occupied mothers would love the air fryer for every one of the reasons specified previously. Solid sustenance for their children cooked with the base of complains and quick as well.

Undergrads would discover the fryer advantageous as well as it is exceptionally adaptable and simple to tidy up. It leaves no slick wreckage.

The elderly would love the air fryer at my deal for its basic use. There are just 2 catches to change, the temperature and clock control. Additionally, the sound sans oil nourishment would be extraordinary for their wellbeing.

Anybody on a low-fat eating routine would likewise cherish the fryer for its sans oil or less oil cooking strategy. Indeed, you get the chance to make the most of your most loved solace sustenance in a more sound manner.

Why Buying a Sheet Set is the Best Bet For the Money

When you go looking for bedding for a standard bed you have a ton of choices. You can blend and match, and purchase your sheets and sofa-bed independently. With regards to purchasing bedding and sheets you are in an ideal situation to locate a pleasant sheet set. You will think that its simpler, and more affordable.

sheets have a few remarkable outline highlights you don’t discover in general bed sheets. These highlights make keeping the sheets on your considerably less demanding, they make looking for sheets somewhat harder. sheets are associated at the base in the center. Having the sheets associated makes several things less demanding. It makes it simple to make the bed, getting the sheets tucked in. It likewise keeps the best sheets set up while you are resting. There is regularly little space to move between the sleeping pad and the bed outline, so having the sheets associated makes things somewhat simpler. sheet sets every now and again have a level sheet that has a corner fold. The sheet fold keeps the sheet tucked in for the duration of the night.

Another advantage of buying sheet sets is the sofa-bed accompanies the set. This will for the most part spare you a great deal of cash. Indeed, you can set aside to 30% by getting them as a set as paired to purchasing every one of the pieces exclusively. You may likewise experience serious difficulties finding a sofa that matches in the event that you attempt to blend and match. You are guaranteed of finding a coordinating sofa-bed by purchasing a set.

sheets sets are being made in an ever increasing number of textures. Truth be told, you can discover them in pretty much any texture you would need not. A few textures you may attempt are glossy silk, cotton, percale, glossy silk, and they are currently even accessible in eco neighborly bamboo You will discover the cotton sheets arrive in an extensive variety of string check, which will help decide the cost of your set. The higher the string tally of your sheets, the higher the value, the sheets are likewise gentler and silkier the higher you go in string check. On the off chance that you are watching your spending you would prefer not to get sheets of under 180 string tally, they will be scratchy and will probably make little balls which are extremely awkward.

In the event that you are searching for sheets and a sofa your most logical option to discover something that matches is to get a sheet set. On the off chance that you don’t generally mind if your sheets coordinate simply ahead and blend and match. In the event that you are searching for a sofa-bed however, you will spare cash by purchasing the sheets with it in a set. Who can’t utilize another arrangement of sheets in any case?

Discount Baby Changing Tables

Is it accurate to say that you are searching for some extraordinary arrangements on rebate infant evolving tables? On the off chance that you know where to look, you can get some extremely low costs. Simply continue perusing and I’ll reveal to you how.

Baby Changing Tables

As the parent of another infant, you can get a genuine dosage of sticker stun when searching for evolving tables. Some go for as much as $2,000. You would prefer not to give your child anything besides the best, however you’re not profited. Before you spend anything, choose what you truly require in an evolving table. Here are a few things to consider.

– It ought to be strong and safe. There ought to be a rail of some sort to keep your child on the table. It ought to be safely joined. The table itself ought to be very much built, of tough materials. You might utilize this table for more than one tyke, so you need it to last.

– It ought to be the right tallness. One explanation behind having a table is with the goal that you don’t need to twist around while you’re changing your child. That can be harsh on your back. Check the measurements and ensure it will be sufficiently tall for you stand easily while diapering your little one.

Baby Changing Tables

– It ought to have a lot of room for diapers and other evolving supplies. Some changing tables have drawers and some have open racks. Whichever style you pick, simply ensure there is sufficient space to store all the vital things.

The most effective method to Get Great Deals

It doesn’t really matter what style you are looking for or what your budget is. If you are looking for discount baby changing tables, you can get them for a lower price than your friends are getting them for.

You don’t need to invest hours surfing from store to store yourself. Simply look at a site that finds these arrangements for you.

An Overview about PLAYERUNKNOWN’S BATTLEGROUNDS

Hard to miss the Player Unknown does Battlegrounds madness with its peaks of 3 million simultaneous players and its tens of millions of players own the game on Steam and Xbox One, So we thought it was time to offer you on Gameblog a test in good form of the PC game version of all records. Does it deserve its success? This is what we will modestly try to see together.

An Overview about PLAYERUNKNOWN'S BATTLEGROUNDS

First of all it is important to define the terms that interest us. In this case “Battle Royale” since this is the kind to which PUBG belongs. The genre stems from an eponymous novel by the Japanese author Kōshun Takami published in 1999, which then gave rise to a series of manga and a film. It is especially the latter who helped to make known the work in the West. Simply put, a class is chosen randomly by the government and must compete on an island.

Each student receives a survival pack with a weapon or tool in a hazardous way and the goal for the students is to be the ultimate survivor of this macabre game. To achieve his ends, all the blows are allowed. Murder, mutilation and overall all the horrors committed by the to be human since the dawn of Humanity. As time goes by, the play area narrows and some parts of the island become forbidden on pain of death (in the film, an explosive collar is found on each student’s neck and triggers) .

Simple and Efficient

The principle of the game supervised by Brendan Greene is exactly the same with a few details. You are on a server of a hundred players, everyone starts on a plane type C-130 Hercules and you have the opportunity to parachute when you want when the plane flies over the island, following a completely random journey from one part to another, forcing you to adapt to new geographical situations . Once on the ground, you have to survive as long as you can – with chicken at dinner as a virtual reward for your efforts. At the end of a certain time the “practicable” sector shrinks and the new area to be reached is represented on the map by a white circle.

Obviously the more the time progresses, the more the circle is smaller and smaller so that at the end only a few dozen square meters, This forces the players to the deadly encounter. If you stay out of the play area for too long, your life slowly breaks down and you die . The closer you are to the top of the last survivors, the more points you earn and the more you can access new cosmetic items for your character via craft boxes . And of course you will also climb the world rankings to heal your e-popularity. Now if you want to download this PC Game or want to Free Download PC Games, then you need to visit fully PC games to download it. FullyPCGamess is all about PC games free download full version for Windows 8 of all the games Audience in all over the entire world. Visit us to download free full version of all such games.

Bank Reserves: Rajan finds Rebellious Sweet Potato

Today I get into Garíon territory, and on top I start with an “exposé”: his colleague from Chicago Raghuram Rajan reads “Nothing is Free”. Okay, it’s a joke, that you have your heart and you also want to be read, even if it’s using tabloid tactics. It turns out that yesterday, in the Financial Times, Rajan wrote an article that is related to the theory I expressed in a post in early September: the regulations tend to fail (in that case I was referring to the Sarkozy initiative to limit the “bonus” of the bankers) beca use it is difficult to find a sufficiently complete contract for those affected, who have more powerful incentives than the regulator, to find a hole in the law that allows them to go around the blockade. The sweet potato came to account for a story of my father from our post-civil war: when the potato had the regulated price, the markets were emptied of potatoes and filled with sweet potatoes.

Bank Reserves Rajan finds Rebellious Sweet Potato

The star regulation of the G-20 to avoid another crisis like the current one is to increase the capital requirements to the banks. But it seems to Rajan that American banks, and other countries with well-developed financial sectors, will skip regulation, which consumes capital with a very high opportunity cost. They will simply pass funds from regulated activities to less regulated activities, as they have done in recent years with their structured investment vehicles.

Rajan proposes “contingent capital” as an alternative. Something like a line of credit, but better, you’ll see. Rajan’s argument is that this capital will be cheap because it will be requested when things go well and this will not generate arbitrage. The version that Rajan likes is that of the Squam Lake Group, which consists of bonds convertible into “equity” when two conditions are met: aggregate financial conditions are bad, measured in an objective and automatic manner, and the bank’s capital ratio is less than a certain level.

At the moment I cannot think of a clear objection to this mechanism. But it is important to note that financial conditions deteriorated so rapidly in our recession that Rajan’s first condition would not work if we had to wait for the appearance of periodic indicators. Perhaps the decision to “shoot” these clauses of the debt contracts, which should be armored against the more than probable visit to the courts of the debt owners, could be left to the corresponding Central Bank.

For more info about such business topic’s or matters or you wanna learn about more business studies online, you just need to visit Business Study Notes. Business Study Notes is all about DBA, BBA and MBA Studies. You may easily get ready for your exams through Business Study Notes.

25 famous love quotes

Writers, actors and philosophers of all times have reflected, aloud or in writing, about love . This is a compilation of 25 famous phrases that talk about matters of the heart, feelings and relationships. Tender, sharp, fun and, above all, inspiring. Want more information about love quotes need to visit http://happydaysblog.com/category/quotes/.

25 famous love quotes

  • “To love is not to look at one another; is to look together in the same direction. ” Antoine de Saint-Exupery, French writer.
  • “Love until it hurts. If it hurts is a good sign”. Mother Teresa of Calcutta. Missionary of Albanian origin and nationalized Indian.
  • “Never forget that the first kiss does not occur with the mouth, but with the eyes”. OK Bernhardt, German writer.
  • ” The kiss ? An enchanted trick to stop talking when words become superfluous. ” Ingrid Bergman, Swedish actress.
  • “In matters of love, the insane are those who have more experience. Of love never ask the sane; the sane love sanely, which is like never having loved. ” Jacinto Benavente, Spanish writer.
  • ” Loving oneself is the beginning of an adventure that lasts a lifetime.” Oscar Wilde, Irish dramatist and novelist.

  • “In a kiss, you will know everything that I have kept silent”. Pablo Neruda, Chilean poet.
  • “The ability to laugh together is love.” Françoise Sagan, French writer.
  • “All we know about love is that love is all there is.”Emily Dickinson, American poet.
  • “I have experienced everything, and I can assure you that there is nothing better than being in the arms of the person you love.” John Lennon, British musician.
  • “Not being loved is a simple misfortune. The true fatality is to not know how to love”. Albert Camus, French writer.
  • “We live in the world when we love. Only a life lived for others is worth living. “ Albert Einstein, German scientist nationalized American.
  • “The trouble with love is that many confuse it with gastritis and, when they have healed of indisposition, they find that they have married.” Groucho Marx, American comedian.

  • “And to be total, complete, absolutely in love, we must be fully aware that one is also loved, that one also inspires love. Mario Benedetti, Uruguayan writer and poet.
  • “Love is the ultimate meaning of everything that surrounds us. It is not a simple feeling; it is the truth, it is the joy that is at the origin of all creation “. Rabindranath Tagore, Indian philosopher and writer.
  • “Love without admiration is only friendship .” George Sand, French writer.
  • “When the power of love overcomes the love of power, the world will know peace.” Jimi Hendrix, American musician and composer.
  • “It is true that in the world of men nothing is necessary, except love.” Johann Wolfgang Goethe, German poet and dramatist.
  • “So love grows: giving love without expecting how much you can receive in return. Yes, you receive. It comes a thousand times more than what you gave.But in a natural way. You do not have to demand it. When you demand it, it does not come. When you demand it, you have killed it. ” Osho, Hindu spiritual master.

  • “Love is a beautiful flower, but you have to have the courage to go pick it up on the edge of a precipice”. Stendhal, French writer.
  • “Man has to stimulate the woman’s spirit and spirit to make sexual relationships interesting. The true lover is the man who excites her by touching her head, smiling or looking her in the eye. ” Marilyn Monroe , American actress.
  • “A coward is incapable of showing love; doing so is reserved for the brave. ” Mahatma Gandhi, Indian politician and thinker.
  • “You have to listen to the head, but let the heart speak.” Marguerite Yourcenar, French writer.
  • “It is better to have loved and lost than to have never loved.”Alfred Tennyson, English poet.
  • “The beauty of a woman must be seen in her eyes, because that is the door of her heart, the place where love resides.” Audrey Hepburn, Belgian actress.

Difference between dizygotic twins and monozygotic twins

The issue of reproduction, especially human, can be very interesting for many people; however, for many more, this may be a confusing subject in which myths and other false beliefs are often spread.

Difference between dizygotic twins and monozygotic twins

Since we are on the subject of reproduction, we will focus on clarifying what the difference betweenz twins and twins; because since you are here you are very likely to have doubts about it.

Note: Contrary to what most people believe, the presence of two placentas or two amniotic sacs is no proof at all when determining whether they are monozygotic or dizygotic twins. This can only be determined accurately by a DNA test. If they turn out to be a girl and a child, it is clearly not monozygotic twins; since the DNA is very different.

Dizygotic Twins

The twins are nothing more than the dizygotic twins. The term twin is used in colloquial speech. This dizygotic twin (twins) means that the babies developed from two different eggs, fertilized by two different spermatozoa.

According to the geographical point , the incidence of twins’ births ranges from 6 to 20 per 1,000 births. The probability of twins depends on many factors, such as the country of birth.

In Japan , 6 out of 1,000 births correspond to twins; while in India, 15 or more per 1,000 are. This type of pregnancy is also more common in women over 35 years and in those who undergo fertility treatments.

Twins are the product of hyperovulation, that is, the mother releases more than one egg per cycle. Women who have had twins are four times more likely to get them back into their next pregnancy.

In addition, certain medications such as clomiphene increase the likelihood of fraternal twins by about 10%; since it tends to provoke hyperovulation.

On the other hand, the genetic code of the twins is usually as similar and different as it is among other siblings. Fraternal twins (as the twins are also told) may have different blood types; contrary to what happens in the case of identical twins (as they are also told to monozygotic).

It is important to clarify that neither the twins nor the twins have the same fingerprints.

Monozygotic Twins

Also known as identical twins or monozygotic twins. In the case of these, it is simply an egg fertilized by a spermatozoid; which is divided into two.

The likelihood of having identical twins is the same around the world: 3 out of every 1,000 births.

In the case of twins (in both cases they are called twins, only twins are used in colloquial speech), the genetic code and the sex of babies are usually the same; something that does not always happen in the previous case.

Also, the blood type is also the same. The same is true of appearance, although in some cases environmental factors may give rise to certain differences.

The survival rate of monozygotic twins is between 50% and 60%, due to the risk that the umbilical cord of one of the babies is entangled in the neck of the other and this deprives the affected brother of oxygen, causing cerebral palsy.

Twins have a higher risk of premature birth. In these cases, the duration of gestation is usually around 38 weeks; in contrast to single births, which statistically typically last 40 weeks.

Key Differences Between dizygotic twins and monozygotic twins

  • Twins are the product of a fertilized egg that divides into two, while the twins are the result of two eggs fertilized by two spermatozoa.
  • The genetic code, sex and blood type are the same in twins, but in twins it does not necessarily have to be this way.
  • Twins are called monozygotic twins and identical twins, while twins are called dizygotic twins and fraternal twins.
  • The probability of twin births depends on geographic location, however, the likelihood of twin births is equal globally.

Electric Kettles: Practical And Energy Efficient!

With an electric kettle, you can enjoy in no time a good hot cup of tea. Did you know that it uses less than a saucepan or whistle to heat water? There are many models in the trade. With our advice, you will buy the one that suits you best.

What is the best electric kettle for you?

  • You are not always well awake in the morning? So choose a double-walled appliance . The water stays warm inside, but you are not likely to get burned by touching the outside. Which is more cautious when you are not in the morning (we know what we are talking about …).
  • The higher the power, the faster the water heats up. This does not mean that the kettle consumes more, on the contrary: it stays on for less time and therefore consumes less. Kettles with Keep Warm feature consume much more.
  • Better to buy a model in which the heating element is not isolated, but integrated in the bottom. This allows energy savings.
  • The volume varies between 0.5 and 2 liters. If the use you intend to make the device is limited to heating water for tea, a small model is enough. You also use it to heat pasta water? So, better to turn to a bigger model. Enjoy your meal !
  • There are kettles with or without power cable. Cable less versions are handy because you do not have to pull the plug to pour the water. Better still, especially for left-handed users: models with swivel base . It is then very easy to put the kettle back in its place.
  • Tea lovers will choose a model with temperature control: 80 ° for green tea and 100 ° for black tea.

Do not forget to decaled regularly!

A scaled kettle heats less quickly, consumes more and breaks down more easily. Your kettle does not have an anti-lime scale function? So, decaled it by boiling water with a drizzle of white vinegar. It will then rinse a few times with water to rid it of the unpleasant smell of vinegar. You can also replace the vinegar with lemon juice.

The frequency of decaling depends on the hardness of the tap water. Count between every month and every three months. Another solution is to use filtered water.

Do you love gadgets? Buy a smart kettle!

Smart thermostats, like Anna, or smart lamps have been on the market for some time. But there are also kettles connected by wifi with your Smartphone. You can synchronize them with your alarm clock so that the water starts to heat up as soon as your alarm rings, or simply remotely control them with the app. And when they are almost empty, they send a message. Practice, is not it?

Violence and sociability in online video games

The explosion of the practice of video games is a social fact whose importance is now evidenced by their omnipresence in exchanges between children and adolescents, as well as by the sales figures of consoles and game software, which represent thousands of published game titles, and hundreds of millions of consoles, cassettes and CD-ROMs sold worldwide for an annual turnover of around 25 billion euros (Idate, 2000).

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However, the phenomenon is still the subject of few comprehensive studies in social sciences, even though it takes a new dimension today, on the one hand, because it extends to categories of players more older than teens, and on the other hand, because it now offers the community of players the opportunity to meet in the gaming space, as most versions have a networked gaming option, and a possibility Internet connection that allows you to play with other participants from around the world, via gaming platforms hosted on remote servers. To the fascination with the imagery, the animations and the scenario proposed by the game, adds interactivity with other players within the many communities that form on the Network. Video games are one of the most popular domains for Internet users. The Microsoft’s gaming zone in 1999 was home to more than eight million users a week, and the Havas Interactive sites ( battle.net , won.net and Battle Central ) nearly ten million (Idate, id.).

A phenomenon whose scale worries

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The attraction of young people for video games worries parents and educators on at least two levels. Some of the questions they ask concern the risks of isolation and desocialization linked to an excessive practice of games in general. The other side of their concerns is the impact of some games in particular, because of their themes and their explicitly violent scenarios.

1 Isolation of the player

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Does video games, and especially video games on the Internet, increase the isolation between human beings, allowing interlocutors, without having to meet physically, to preferentially communicate in artificial worlds, populated by unreal beings and subject to rules that have only a distant relationship with everyday life? Now a figure popularized by the media, the video game fan, more and more often Internet surfer, spends hours in front of his screen, never leaves his house to meet his parents, his neighbors and his friends. Does the scarcity of encounters with loved ones encourage a form of abstraction, derealization of the other? To be captured only as one of the interchangeable characters of an online video game,

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The virtualization of the interlocutor, with whom it becomes possible to communicate anonymously and who, himself, offers no certainty about his real identity, presents himself as the accomplished figure of a society in which we can do without the others, to have to take them into account in everyday life, to pay attention to the consequences of what they are told, what is done to them or what is done with them (Schmoll , 2001a). In a universe where the other can be quickly replaced by millions of others (others, just in the sense that there are others of him), even by bots (characters animated by algorithms of artificial intelligence), no need to say “please” or “thank you”.

2 The violence of certain games

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This concern is redoubled in the case of violent video games. No doubt the practice of games on the Internet expresses a general desire to meet with others in a search for pleasure to many. But the aggression is there, via games such asQuake , Duke Nukem , Hexen , or Counter-Strike , the form of confrontation to the other most frequently staged, with a wealth of infographic details, which in the cutting the bodies with a laser or a medieval ax, or the mortar blast of the opponents whose guts are going to tap to the surrounding walls, reduce it most of the time to an object of satisfaction of the less elaborate impulses.

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In most of these games, the subjective vision precipitates identification with the aggressor: the player sees what is happening through the eyes of the character he animates (his “avatar”), causing the illusion of immersion in the 3D environment in which it evolves. The realism of infographic animation and immersion thus weakens the boundary between the game situation and reality. This boundary is in principle clear, defined materially by precise limits: the environment in which the player is, the time of the game and the virtual space in which one plays. But this objective definition does not answer the question of the risks of gambling overflows in real life, at the psychological and behavioral levels: would there be a risk of confusion, a non-differentiation, in the mind of the player, who can take the real world for a playground – and possibly behave as a predator? Would the practice of these games transform young people into a horde of new barbarians who will make the world of tomorrow dangerous to live?

Rather reassuring scientific studies

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The nature and content of the scenarios proposed by games in which the main part of the action is often, repeatedly, killing everything that moves, have led to studies to better understand the phenomenon and its potential dangers for the evolution of player behavior in real life. The fundamental question is therefore whether the excessive practice of video games, and especially games with violent content, may exacerbate youth violence and contaminate their real social behavior.

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To date, little work has been done because this field of research is very recent. A French study, conducted in 1994 on the classes of twenty-six schools of Savoie representing more than a thousand interviews, concludes that students with an “excellent” level are actually more likely to play video games (all styles) than those having poor academic results, but playing less time than they do (Longuet, 1996). This study shows that one third of the big players are excellent students and that this does not disturb their results at school. Of all the games cited in the interviews, only 15% are violent games. Another aspect pointed out by this study shows that video games are a factor of social integration and exchange becausewe play only if we can talk with friends and / or play with parents , and that at the age of 8 years. Another study, dating from 1994 and conducted by Joel Saxe at the University of Massachusetts, concludes that although the game Mortal Kombatshows an extreme violence, the behavior of the young players between them is cooperative, even pleasant (Saxe, 1994). From a functional perspective, the role of the violent video game is seen as positive, because it generates pleasure and helps to combat frustration, to get rid of feelings of anxiety and stress through identification with the fantastic powers offered to the player in the game. Saxe speaks of “inversion of reality”, this inversion allowing the players to manage their moods: thus, following a missed day, a good part of the fight from which one comes out restores the tone, Boosts morale and restores self-confidence. Violent video games appear to teenagers as a way of channeling violent impulses and letting them express themselves, resulting in a better balance and lowering of internal tensions. This release can also combat feelings of doubt, questioning important identities at this pivotal age, and allow better management of conflicts larvae or expressed in the face of authority. The pleasure of the game should not be considered subversive or perverse as it helps to fight anxiety, anger and frustration. Play can also be the place of expression of emotions that are repressed in the social context. This study also reveals demonstrations of solidarity and mutual aid between experienced and novice players: the latter are often treated in a friendly and non-violent way by “veterans”. This release can also combat feelings of doubt, questioning important identities at this pivotal age, and allow better management of conflicts larvae or expressed in the face of authority. The pleasure of the game should not be considered subversive or perverse as it helps to fight anxiety, anger and frustration. Play can also be the place of expression of emotions that are repressed in the social context. This study also reveals demonstrations of solidarity and mutual aid between experienced and novice players: the latter are often treated in a friendly and non-violent way by “veterans”. This release can also combat feelings of doubt, questioning important identities at this pivotal age, and allow better management of conflicts larvae or expressed in the face of authority. The pleasure of the game should not be considered subversive or perverse as it helps to fight anxiety, anger and frustration. Play can also be the place of expression of emotions that are repressed in the social context. This study also reveals demonstrations of solidarity and mutual aid between experienced and novice players: the latter are often treated in a friendly and non-violent way by “veterans”. The pleasure of the game should not be considered subversive or perverse as it helps to fight anxiety, anger and frustration. Play can also be the place of expression of emotions that are repressed in the social context. This study also reveals demonstrations of solidarity and mutual aid between experienced and novice players: the latter are often treated in a friendly and non-violent way by “veterans”. The pleasure of the game should not be considered subversive or perverse as it helps to fight anxiety, anger and frustration. Play can also be the place of expression of emotions that are repressed in the social context. This study also reveals demonstrations of solidarity and mutual aid between experienced and novice players: the latter are often treated in a friendly and non-violent way by “veterans”.

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Similar findings are presented in an Australian study involving a sample of 1310 people, including 415 youth aged 12-17 (Durkin & Aisbett, 1999), which also shows that there is no significant effect of negative influence. violent video games about the behavior in the life of the players studied. Players take pleasure in playing and many of them claim to have felt a very motivating feeling of competition during the game. There are a lot of laughs and discussions around the games, and few open aggression, verbal or physical, between players: when they occur, they are accompanied by laughter, which changes its meaning. Most players experience positive feelings during games, few say they feel anger or aggressive impulses.

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The only study that differs from the previous ones in its conclusions is a double study by The American Psychological Association’s(APA), the first component of which consists of a questionnaire administered to 227 people, including 149 women, and the second to an experiment conducted on 210 people, including 104 women, all psychology students (Anderson & Dill, 2000). The questionnaire highlights that 73% of the games cited as the most played by students are non-violent. Laboratory experimentation involves placing the selected sample in a situation in two video games, one non-violent and the other violent. The study concludes that violent games intensify thoughts with aggressive content and violent behavior, they are more dangerous than television and cinema and have the distinction of leading the player to identify with the aggressor. Furthermore, the survey correlates the number of hours played with school failure. The study concludes that the practice of violent video games is an aggravating factor of behavior and personality disorders in long-time gamers, that it potentiates the “patterns” of aggression and inclines to the passage into action in the real life. The amplification of violent behavior, generated by repeated exposure to active violence in games, is thought to be due to the reinforcing and over-learning factors of aggressive mental structures. In addition, the study suggests that young players are looking to play more and more violent games. Females have higher levels of hostility and aggression than men. The danger of these games is relayed by the ideas conveyed and not by the emotion experienced during the games. The more realistic the violence, the more the player identifies with the aggressor and the greater the tendency to internalize aggressive solutions in solution to conflict situations in the real world, instead of choosing consensual paths. On the other hand, in the game, aggression is sought and executed: it is not received passively as in the vision of a television program. Finally, games have an addictive component play https://addictinggamesz.com/, which risks further potentiating the learning of violent behavior. the more the player identifies with the aggressor, the greater the tendency to internalize aggressive solutions in solution to conflictual situations in the real world, instead of choosing consensual paths. On the other hand, in the game, aggression is sought and executed: it is not received passively as in the vision of a television program. Finally, games have an addictive component, which risks further potentiating the learning of violent behavior. the more the player identifies with the aggressor, the greater the tendency to internalize aggressive solutions in solution to conflictual situations in the real world, instead of choosing consensual paths. On the other hand, in the game, aggression is sought and executed: it is not received passively as in the vision of a television program. Finally, games have an addictive component, which risks further potentiating the learning of violent behavior.

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In contrast to the previous study, a synthesis of all published research commissioned in 1999 by the Clinton Administration and presented by the Public Health Service resulted in a report (Satcher, 2001). This review of the work concludes that video games about behavior are safe, except for subjects with pre-existing aggressive social and psychological behaviors that are then amplified by addiction to violent video games.

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In general, therefore, the research carried out does not establish that video games, even violent, have a negative influence on the behavior of players in real life. The same is true of e-dependence, which is effective, but of which there is no reason to say that it is, like addiction, a “heavy” dependence: no case of violence against oneself or against another one seems to date to have been signaled for cause of “lack”. On the contrary, video games arouse original forms of sociability in the margins of the game.

Sociability from the game: tournaments and clans

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Since the development of network and on-line games , communities are created and sometimes meet ” irl ” ( in real life ) on the occasion of week-ends entirely devoted to a tournament in local network: groups of ten to twenty young people gather in a room, each bringing his own computer, sleeping bag and provisions. After an hour or two spent mounting their networked machines, they then play continuously, the participants taking turns to take a break.

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There are other types of games related to gambling: national and international events are regularly organized, bringing together hundreds of players on the same site. From 25 to 27 May 2001, for example, a tournament, the Lan Arena 6 , hosted in Paris, under the Ark de la Defense, 1200 players and their computers connected in a huge local network. Four giant screens and ten plasma screens made it possible to follow live games in which French and German clans competed in Quake III , Tournament , Broodwar and Counter-Strike tournaments , all massacre games .The results, published on a site ( www.lang-arena.com ), make it possible to follow the qualifications of the clans with rankings similar to those of the sports field. The comparison does not stop there, since articles appearing in specialized magazines ( Online Gamer, for example) use a narrative style close to that of sports journalism. Sponsors are already present in these tournaments, lending equipment, providing network infrastructure, presenting their stalls and providing prize prizes for the winners. From then on, the ideals of competitive sport (and probably also the risks of drifting) are transposed in these tournaments: the will to win, the cult of the winner, but also the team spirit and the notion of fair play .

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In the margins of these encounters and the space of confrontation itself, forms of sociability are developing online and irlrelated games. The players regroup in permanent teams, taking again the theme, the vocabulary and the imagery of the game. They join together within “tribes warriors”, bound by the common will to reach the goal and by the displayed conviction of to be the strongest, the bravest, the best. These “clans” and “guilds” have their own sites, where members and visitors find themselves outside the strict space of games, in a dark or bloody decorum, studded with traditional “Gothic” objects (skulls, bones, swords, axes …) but displaying a community sociality: one for all in the group, all against others outside.

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The spirit of the game can not be trapped by the implicit values ​​of the scenarios proposed by the designers. The games of massacre value in first approach the individual alone against all, the “everything is allowed” and the displayed refusal of the order, but the discourse and the practices of the players orient themselves towards the affirmation of the belonging to the a group, the pre-eminence of rules, norms, values ​​inspired by warlike cultures, such as honor, courage, strength, freedom, justice, cooperation … Games whose central theme is the destruction on the other hand, where it can nevertheless be considered honorable to have been “broken apart” by a valuable adversary, thus give rise to sociality in more or less stable groups and in gaming communities where adversaries meet, sympathize, establish relationships of mutual respect. In these cases, the game causes the encounter with the other and this meeting, in return, guarantees the gap between fiction and reality: we kill each other virtually, but it is simply impossible that it is anything other than a game.

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While extreme violence is the driving force of the game, the destruction many times of his avatar, normal and inevitable, does not cause bitterness of the player vis-à-vis the opponent. In real life , the atmosphere in the playroom is generally good and laughter is common (“You have got me, you bastard!”). The space of the game, circumscribed by the screen, does not prevent a good-natured sociality outside the game. We regularly observe outside the game a mutual help between players, yet fierce enemies in the arena. Online, many sites welcome novices and provide advice and start-up help. In the world of Quake, a support of “new” network, locally or on the Internet, is also commonplace.

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In this context of a sociality that produces its own values, certain behaviors are presented as transgressions, not to the rules of the game itself, but to the codes of “good behavior” of the membership clan or the community of players in general. Swearing, for example, is not uncommon in the heat of the moment; however, xenophobic or sexist insults are a badly accepted aggression not only by those to whom they are addressed but also by the other players present. Cheaters handling the programming code of the game to build their character or falsify scores for their benefit, or worse, that penetrate through hacking techniques, hackingin the computer of another player to change the characteristics of his character, are fingered on the forums and, when they are identified, are excluded both competitions and clans they are part.

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In a very general way, the players of massacre games refuse to this kind of abuses and one finds that all is not allowed in these violent virtual universes. The player expects others to respect him as a player, and in fact as a human being, and he usually behaves towards opponents with the same respect that he expects to be expected by them of His part. For the value of the winner to be measured at an undisputed yardstick, fair play , honesty is essential in a game where the odds must be equal for all and where the difference must take place, not by means adulterated, but by comparing individual abilities: speed of reaction, concentration, efficiency and self-control.

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Thus, even if he wins in the game, the cheater is in reality a loser: he is ostracized by the community of players because he has excluded himself from the spirit of the game and values ​​shared by all. . Conversely the honest player, even the loser, can cling to a positive image of himself: in his reference system, he recognizes his opponents, not only as enemies, but also as partners sharing the same values, and considers that he is recognized by them in this same place, because he has lost “honorably”. Exchanges on forums that follow competitions confirm this spirit: the winners congratulate the losers for defending themselves valiantly, the losers are proud to have been defeated by valuable opponents. Cheats and bad players are ostracized by the community.

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In summary, most players, even protected by their anonymity, are committed to respect the rules imposed by a minimal civility: “serious” insults and cheating are too violent, the crossing of this limit threatens the game itself , which may cease to be a game. The extreme violence staged must remain confined in the fictional space: the majority of the players are clearly aware of it, and the borderline is clear between the battle arena and what happens outside the game, between violent fiction in its forms, inside the game, and a reality-friendly reality, on the sidelines of the game.

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These rules of life between players and the exclusion of disrupters thus inscribe an order into these virtual universes which seem initially destined to the expression of the violent and destructive instincts, and thus doomed to chaos. This order is a lived metaphor of what is happening in the real world: just as in reality, surviving and winning in these virtual worlds require effort, work, learning, and very often cooperation to arrive at the result. , to success. The transgressions are punished as in the real world (by disapproval at least and, when possible, by criminalization of the culprit). Violent game players put their behaviors in a frame marked by values ​​that are actually those of the real world.

A new generation of games: the “persistent worlds”

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The scientific studies cited above do not take into account a more recent form of these online video games, which have since become increasingly popular and in which the line between fiction and reality is not so clear. It is therefore appropriate to say a few words here, to be complete on the subject.

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With the “persistent worlds”, realism and interactivity take on a new dimension. In these games, the game in which the player moves is perpetual. It does not disappear when it disconnects from the Network. And when he reconnects, he finds the character as he left it. The “persistent worlds” are therefore played only online, bringing together tens of thousands of players from around the world in one part: their massively multiplayer mode represents between 100 and 300,000 subscriber accounts depending on the game.

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The player embodies a character with special characteristics and skills. He sets out to discover a fantastic medieval world populated by dangerous creatures with evil powers ( Ultima , Everquest , Asheron’s Call , The Fourth Prophecy ). Or it embarks on a space ship to conquer the galaxy and develops its installations on planets, participates in the formation of stellar empires ( Mankind , Starpeace). The violent confrontation is also staged, but with a lesser luxury of bloody details than in the games of massacre: it is more of role-playing games or strategy games, computer successors of table games like Dungeons and Dragons.

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Unlike video games whose space is limited to the equivalent of a combat arena in a given time, persistent worlds do not stop: players therefore live permanently with each other in the game , and, in a way, even when they are disconnected, since their characters and installations continue to produce and may be attacked while they are not there. The boundary between play and reality becomes blurred, porous, and the complexity of interactions allows for the emergence of spontaneous forms of sociality that have a ubiquitous existence: just as the clans of massacre video games, the guilds and empires of these “Persistent worlds” have their own websites on other Internet servers, their own forums and occasionally hold meetings in physical locations, a café or the home of one of the members; however, these groups and communities also elect inside the game, where they occupy territories, build institutions and kingdoms, engage in a complex game of struggles and alliances with other communities.

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Here, the porosity of the boundary between game space and everyday reality is increased by the time spent developing and communicating with other players. Participants in persistent worlds spend an average of more than 20 hours a week playing in the same game (Nguyen, 2001), which is most of their free time. They call or “email” outside the game. When they are disconnected, they have the opportunity to be notified by the server, on their mobile phone, of an attack on their facilities. Players do not just play in a given time and space: they think about the game, talk about the game, every day in their daily lives.

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To these original forms of sociality are attached specific manifestations of violence. This is no longer just an animation show, it is lived, actually inflicted or suffered. It is not physical, of course, in a virtual world, but being robbed or destroying artifacts or installations, even virtual, that took weeks or months to build causes emotions that are real. Unlike massacre games that cause occasional episodes of adrenaline during play and result in a good-natured sociality, the experience in the “persistent worlds” of assaults experienced as such may elicit not only anger or discouragement, but resentment and even hatred. The modalities of violence in these games are therefore both more elaborate, less directly brutal in their staging, and at the same time closer to the reality they feel.

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The time spent in the game to build virtual goods that are feared to be lost, the hesitation also to provoke, for the same reasons, the anger and the vengeance of an adversary whose assets one would steal or destroy, arouse in the “Persistent worlds” of regulatory mechanisms in the effective exercise of violence: intimidation, threats, alliances, guild affiliations, negotiations, recourse to third parties. The effective aggression of a player by another player is not the most frequent play situation and, when it occurs, it is conditioned by the necessities of needs and alliances and often obeys codes of honor. or the laws of war, but also to a whole web of diplomatic, strategic, moral, and ideological considerations. Playing involves rules of civility and the deployment of communication and negotiation skills. The prevention and management of violence in the game is therefore in itself forms of learning of sociability [3] [3]  For a more detailed study of specific forms ….

One outstanding question: the derealization of violence

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These observations and the studies cited above leave in suspense a question that may not lend itself easily to inquiry-based treatment: that of derealization effects induced by the depiction and staging of violence through synthetic imaging. The problem is not new and has already been studied about the spectacle of violence on television: the daily reception of photos and violent films, relatively identical in their crudity, whether they are programs of information or fiction films, can induce in the viewer a form of feeling of unreality. The spectacle of the death and suffering of others no longer cuts the appetite at mealtime. Similarly, in video games, bursting with mortar or bar with the character of an opponent, which can be indifferently a program managed by the computer or the “avatar” of a real player, generally gives a feeling of undisguised pleasure, whereas on the other hand, the death of his own character is not lived physically as such: we do not really die and we do not even hurt. It is deduced (and it is true) that the destruction of the image of the adversary, even realistically, at the limit of the film reproducing the event, does not mean that the opponent dies “for real”.

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In real-life games, group or combat sports, games, even fights, children and teenagers are led to experience in their body limits not to be exceeded. Wounds and bumps punish the error and mark the differentiated relationship to the other. While in online games, the disappearance of the real body (its own body as well as the body of the other) removes a form of tracking. We face the risk mentioned in the introduction: if others can be treated through its “double” infographic as a video game program, is there not a risk of overflow in sanitized practices, abstract, of violence, which can be inflicted without awareness, or rather without identification, of the pain inflicted on the other?

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The question is not of the same order as that dealt with by the socio-logical surveys mentioned above. These show that violent video game players do not yield more than others to the temptation of physical violence, between them or in their daily reality. One would even assume that, if they play video games, it is because they prefer to avoid physical violence, or even simply exercise-related fatigue and the risk of injury in physical games. Video games come from this point of view to meet a clientele that is not necessarily sporty, looking for in-room recreation. From this point of view, parents and educators can limit their concerns to problems other than violence, such as the possible lack of physical activity.

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But the disturbances induced by the virtual worlds in our apprehension of reality are at least two types (Schmoll, 2001b). When parents and educators stigmatize the risk of specific forms of schizophrenia or solipsism that would provoke too much taste for virtual creatures in video games, they refer to the escape from the real “real”, and to the refuge in synthetic realities, which would result from a tendency to treat simulacra as objects and real beings . But another type of disturbance, the opposite of this one, can also consist of treating reality as having as little consistency as the virtual worlds.. Ph. Quéau (1993) had already pointed out this possibility, which is perhaps even more dangerous, not for young people individually, but for the overall functioning of our societies. Video games appear on the screen in the same way as the military operations on the screen of the command centers of modern armies: for the soldier, the enemy is a “target”, and more and more often, the destruction of the opponent excludes physical contact on the ground and is reduced to the “operator” to experience the disappearance of a flashing dot on its screen.

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The media coverage of the Gulf War, presented as a real-time wargame in which death was never directly shown, has become a prime example of how video games can function as a paradigm of modern warfare. . More recently, the electronic hunt conducted by amateur Internet users looking for information on Osama bin Laden and his military-financial network shows that war is becoming an online game. We finally forget that at the end of the connection, people continue to die.

Phobias: Understanding Them to Fight Them Better

Difficult to live calmly when you have a phobia, especially if it ends up taking all the place. Deciphering the mechanism of phobia and tips to overcome it.

Spiders, mice, metro, plane … The inventory at the Prevert objects of our phobias is endless. If sometimes these anxieties can lend to smile, they are for those who are victims of real source of suffering , especially when the enochlophobia gradually takes the place, encroaching on the daily and sometimes confining some people at home, overwhelmed to the idea of ​​confronting themselves with what panics them. How to explain the mechanism of phobia? How, especially, try to get rid of it?

An irrational fear that betrays an inner anguish

The phobia is characterized by ” irrational panic fear described as such, which is carried on an object – spiders, mice, etc. – or a situation – subway, plane , public speaking – external to the individual,” defines Antoine Dupuy , clinical psychologist. On the psychological level, the phobia consists, he explains, of “moving an inner anguish by projecting it onto a particular object thus making it possible to get rid of an internal anxiety that would be unbearable”. “In psychoanalytic language can say that phobia is the symptom of a psychological conflict whose foundations go back to early childhood: a feeling of emotional insecurity, a fear of abandonment or a feeling of lack of love , etc. ”

Phobic people are also aware of the irrational dimension of their fear. “I suspect that the plane I’m going to climb in will not necessarily crash on take-off, but I’ve internalized it as the safest way of transportation. “Do not be convinced every time my last hour arrived and be literally ill, ” says Carole, 43. Ditto for Myriam, who can “be quieted at the sight of a spider”. “I know, thank you, that the little beast will not eat fat, but the mere sight of this beast makes me lose all my common sense, I can not think, I’m panicked.”

Avoidance of the object of phobia, an effective strategy in the short term

Faced with phobia, the first reaction, the most frequent and the most obvious, observes Antoine Dupuy, “is to avoid the object of fear.” We will go on foot or by bike to his appointment if it is public transport that cause anxiety, we will prefer the train for the holidays rather than the plane, the staircase to the elevator, or we will ban the cellars or attics, favorite places for mice and spiders. “This strategy is rather effective, at least initially,” notes Antoine Dupuy. “It helps to survive even if it does not solve the problem. “” For two or three years, I really made sure I did not have to go on a plane. I took all my holidays in France and I refused some business trips. I was not proud, but at least I was no longer in panic, “says Carole.

Only here, explains Antoine Dupuy, it may happen that avoidance or recourse to a “contra-phobic object” (lucky charm, person can accompany us in the subway, etc.) is not enough to calm the anxiety, that it is triggered at the mere “thought of the phobic object”. “One enters an anxiety of anticipation, in the fear of being afraid . The panic attacks can for example be set up because the subject is projected in the situation that causes the body and interprets the slightest sign announcing precisely the crisis. “The phobic is then caught in an infernal gear, where avoidance is no longer a solution, since we can no longer ignore the object of his phobia. and fall back on themselves, isolate themselves and cut themselves off from the world. ”

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies to Alleviate Symptoms

Before reaching such extremes, it is better to act and try to deprogram the phobia. “The most common angle of attack lies in a drug treatment, usually a combination of anxiolytics and antidepressants, ” Antoine Dupuy describes. “It is better that these medications be prescribed by a psychiatrist , who knows their effects and who can offer a real follow-up,” says the psychologist. Above all, he says, the drug solution “may certainly be appropriate in the short term and can interrupt the vicious circle of anxiety but it is not enough to understand the causes of this symptom.”

The cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are for their often very effective “to prevent disorder sets in and take the whole place,” says Antoine Dupuy. “In general, it’s about exposing the person little by little to the object of his phobia.” The exercises are done first by imagination , then concretely in the form of a scenario of usually destabilizing and difficult tasks. The idea is to isolate, then treat the dysfunctional thoughts that cause anxiety.

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Arthur, 36, has been successful thanks to a cognitive-behavioral therapy to overcome his uncontrollable fear of the highway. “I could not take an interchange anymore and I had to make all my trips on national, not very practical when it comes for example to make a Paris – Lyon! It took me a dozen of sessions to stop it. ” Lisa, meanwhile, tried EMDR to cure her “emetophobia” , namely the fear of vomiting. After four sessions, she can now “manage the gastros of children without being overwhelmed by anxiety”. Marion finally found comfort in hypnosis: “It may sound silly but I had developed a phobia pigeons.If for others it can make you laugh, for me it was a nightmare, especially as I live in Paris.Hypnosis me a lot pacified “.

Analytical work, to find the meaning of phobia

Caution, warns Antoine Dupuy, with CBT unlike analytical work , we “do not intervene on the causes but on the symptom.” And if the results are often spectacular at first, the risk is great that the phobia moves elsewhere, the inner anxiety still exists. “I thought I had overcome my fear of speaking in public with a coach who was using CBT,” says Charlotte, 37. “It worked for a few months, and then suddenly I had panic attacks as soon as I was in an important work meeting, I felt that maybe I needed to understand what was happening to me and started psychotherapyon the long term. Today I’m starting to get better, in depth. ”

“The analytic work makes it possible to find the meaning of the phobia, to understand the internal conflict responsible for this neurosis “, explains Antoine Dupuy. Far from preaching only for this parish, he suggests ” coupling the different approaches , combining both a work based on CBT and an approach of analytical orientation, sometimes even a drug when the symptoms are too violent”.

We can overcome these phobias, “provided to engage permanently,” concludes the psychologist. But, he adds, “healing is a notion that is used little in psychoanalysis because the psychic functioning or the psychic organization of a person, in this case phobic neurosis also has a ‘benefit’ for the nobody, “as paradoxical as it may appear.” By “profit”, Antoine Dupuy hears the fact that the phobic person wins particular attention from others, sometimes an aid or a company when it decides, by example, to take public transport or the airplane.In general, the phobia being a “displacement” of anguish, it presents especially the interest in making the latter external to oneself. In other words, it may happen that a person has built around this phobia and derives a balance certainly precarious, but real. “That’s why we do not always recover completely, but we can, with the help of therapies,to improve one’s quality of life and to learn about one’s weaknesses to live with.  For more info visit https://itspsychology.com/