Violence and sociability in online video games

The explosion of the practice of video games is a social fact whose importance is now evidenced by their omnipresence in exchanges between children and adolescents, as well as by the sales figures of consoles and game software, which represent thousands of published game titles, and hundreds of millions of consoles, cassettes and CD-ROMs sold worldwide for an annual turnover of around 25 billion euros (Idate, 2000). Also if you wanna play bad piggies or bad racing games online, then you may visit these two websites Bad Ice Cream Online & Bad Piggies Online as well to play them online and free in 2018. Both games unblocked 2018 versions.


However, the phenomenon is still the subject of few comprehensive studies in social sciences, even though it takes a new dimension today, on the one hand, because it extends to categories of players more older than teens, and on the other hand, because it now offers the community of players the opportunity to meet in the gaming space, as most versions have a networked gaming option, and a possibility Internet connection that allows you to play with other participants from around the world, via gaming platforms hosted on remote servers. To the fascination with the imagery, the animations and the scenario proposed by the game, adds interactivity with other players within the many communities that form on the Network. Video games are one of the most popular domains for Internet users. The Microsoft’s gaming zone in 1999 was home to more than eight million users a week, and the Havas Interactive sites ( , and Battle Central ) nearly ten million (Idate, id.).

A phenomenon whose scale worries


The attraction of young people for video games worries parents and educators on at least two levels. Some of the questions they ask concern the risks of isolation and desocialization linked to an excessive practice of games in general. The other side of their concerns is the impact of some games in particular, because of their themes and their explicitly violent scenarios.

1 Isolation of the player


Does video games, and especially video games on the Internet, increase the isolation between human beings, allowing interlocutors, without having to meet physically, to preferentially communicate in artificial worlds, populated by unreal beings and subject to rules that have only a distant relationship with everyday life? Now a figure popularized by the media, the video game fan, more and more often Internet surfer, spends hours in front of his screen, never leaves his house to meet his parents, his neighbors and his friends. Does the scarcity of encounters with loved ones encourage a form of abstraction, derealization of the other? To be captured only as one of the interchangeable characters of an online video game,


The virtualization of the interlocutor, with whom it becomes possible to communicate anonymously and who, himself, offers no certainty about his real identity, presents himself as the accomplished figure of a society in which we can do without the others, to have to take them into account in everyday life, to pay attention to the consequences of what they are told, what is done to them or what is done with them (Schmoll , 2001a). In a universe where the other can be quickly replaced by millions of others (others, just in the sense that there are others of him), even by bots (characters animated by algorithms of artificial intelligence), no need to say “please” or “thank you”.

2 The violence of certain games


This concern is redoubled in the case of violent video games. No doubt the practice of games on the Internet expresses a general desire to meet with others in a search for pleasure to many. But the aggression is there, via games such asQuake , Duke Nukem , Hexen , or Counter-Strike , the form of confrontation to the other most frequently staged, with a wealth of infographic details, which in the cutting the bodies with a laser or a medieval ax, or the mortar blast of the opponents whose guts are going to tap to the surrounding walls, reduce it most of the time to an object of satisfaction of the less elaborate impulses.


In most of these games, the subjective vision precipitates identification with the aggressor: the player sees what is happening through the eyes of the character he animates (his “avatar”), causing the illusion of immersion in the 3D environment in which it evolves. The realism of infographic animation and immersion thus weakens the boundary between the game situation and reality. This boundary is in principle clear, defined materially by precise limits: the environment in which the player is, the time of the game and the virtual space in which one plays. But this objective definition does not answer the question of the risks of gambling overflows in real life, at the psychological and behavioral levels: would there be a risk of confusion, a non-differentiation, in the mind of the player, who can take the real world for a playground – and possibly behave as a predator? Would the practice of these games transform young people into a horde of new barbarians who will make the world of tomorrow dangerous to live?

Rather reassuring scientific studies


The nature and content of the scenarios proposed by games in which the main part of the action is often, repeatedly, killing everything that moves, have led to studies to better understand the phenomenon and its potential dangers for the evolution of player behavior in real life. The fundamental question is therefore whether the excessive practice of video games, and especially games with violent content, may exacerbate youth violence and contaminate their real social behavior.


To date, little work has been done because this field of research is very recent. A French study, conducted in 1994 on the classes of twenty-six schools of Savoie representing more than a thousand interviews, concludes that students with an “excellent” level are actually more likely to play video games (all styles) than those having poor academic results, but playing less time than they do (Longuet, 1996). This study shows that one third of the big players are excellent students and that this does not disturb their results at school. Of all the games cited in the interviews, only 15% are violent games. Another aspect pointed out by this study shows that video games are a factor of social integration and exchange becausewe play only if we can talk with friends and / or play with parents , and that at the age of 8 years. Another study, dating from 1994 and conducted by Joel Saxe at the University of Massachusetts, concludes that although the game Mortal Kombatshows an extreme violence, the behavior of the young players between them is cooperative, even pleasant (Saxe, 1994). From a functional perspective, the role of the violent video game is seen as positive, because it generates pleasure and helps to combat frustration, to get rid of feelings of anxiety and stress through identification with the fantastic powers offered to the player in the game. Saxe speaks of “inversion of reality”, this inversion allowing the players to manage their moods: thus, following a missed day, a good part of the fight from which one comes out restores the tone, Boosts morale and restores self-confidence. Violent video games appear to teenagers as a way of channeling violent impulses and letting them express themselves, resulting in a better balance and lowering of internal tensions. This release can also combat feelings of doubt, questioning important identities at this pivotal age, and allow better management of conflicts larvae or expressed in the face of authority. The pleasure of the game should not be considered subversive or perverse as it helps to fight anxiety, anger and frustration. Play can also be the place of expression of emotions that are repressed in the social context. This study also reveals demonstrations of solidarity and mutual aid between experienced and novice players: the latter are often treated in a friendly and non-violent way by “veterans”. This release can also combat feelings of doubt, questioning important identities at this pivotal age, and allow better management of conflicts larvae or expressed in the face of authority. The pleasure of the game should not be considered subversive or perverse as it helps to fight anxiety, anger and frustration. Play can also be the place of expression of emotions that are repressed in the social context. This study also reveals demonstrations of solidarity and mutual aid between experienced and novice players: the latter are often treated in a friendly and non-violent way by “veterans”. This release can also combat feelings of doubt, questioning important identities at this pivotal age, and allow better management of conflicts larvae or expressed in the face of authority. The pleasure of the game should not be considered subversive or perverse as it helps to fight anxiety, anger and frustration. Play can also be the place of expression of emotions that are repressed in the social context. This study also reveals demonstrations of solidarity and mutual aid between experienced and novice players: the latter are often treated in a friendly and non-violent way by “veterans”. The pleasure of the game should not be considered subversive or perverse as it helps to fight anxiety, anger and frustration. Play can also be the place of expression of emotions that are repressed in the social context. This study also reveals demonstrations of solidarity and mutual aid between experienced and novice players: the latter are often treated in a friendly and non-violent way by “veterans”. The pleasure of the game should not be considered subversive or perverse as it helps to fight anxiety, anger and frustration. Play can also be the place of expression of emotions that are repressed in the social context. This study also reveals demonstrations of solidarity and mutual aid between experienced and novice players: the latter are often treated in a friendly and non-violent way by “veterans”.


Similar findings are presented in an Australian study involving a sample of 1310 people, including 415 youth aged 12-17 (Durkin & Aisbett, 1999), which also shows that there is no significant effect of negative influence. violent video games about the behavior in the life of the players studied. Players take pleasure in playing and many of them claim to have felt a very motivating feeling of competition during the game. There are a lot of laughs and discussions around the games, and few open aggression, verbal or physical, between players: when they occur, they are accompanied by laughter, which changes its meaning. Most players experience positive feelings during games, few say they feel anger or aggressive impulses.


The only study that differs from the previous ones in its conclusions is a double study by The American Psychological Association’s(APA), the first component of which consists of a questionnaire administered to 227 people, including 149 women, and the second to an experiment conducted on 210 people, including 104 women, all psychology students (Anderson & Dill, 2000). The questionnaire highlights that 73% of the games cited as the most played by students are non-violent. Laboratory experimentation involves placing the selected sample in a situation in two video games, one non-violent and the other violent. The study concludes that violent games intensify thoughts with aggressive content and violent behavior, they are more dangerous than television and cinema and have the distinction of leading the player to identify with the aggressor. Furthermore, the survey correlates the number of hours played with school failure. The study concludes that the practice of violent video games is an aggravating factor of behavior and personality disorders in long-time gamers, that it potentiates the “patterns” of aggression and inclines to the passage into action in the real life. The amplification of violent behavior, generated by repeated exposure to active violence in games, is thought to be due to the reinforcing and over-learning factors of aggressive mental structures. In addition, the study suggests that young players are looking to play more and more violent games. Females have higher levels of hostility and aggression than men. The danger of these games is relayed by the ideas conveyed and not by the emotion experienced during the games. The more realistic the violence, the more the player identifies with the aggressor and the greater the tendency to internalize aggressive solutions in solution to conflict situations in the real world, instead of choosing consensual paths. On the other hand, in the game, aggression is sought and executed: it is not received passively as in the vision of a television program. Finally, games have an addictive component play, which risks further potentiating the learning of violent behavior. the more the player identifies with the aggressor, the greater the tendency to internalize aggressive solutions in solution to conflictual situations in the real world, instead of choosing consensual paths. On the other hand, in the game, aggression is sought and executed: it is not received passively as in the vision of a television program. Finally, games have an addictive component, which risks further potentiating the learning of violent behavior. the more the player identifies with the aggressor, the greater the tendency to internalize aggressive solutions in solution to conflictual situations in the real world, instead of choosing consensual paths. On the other hand, in the game, aggression is sought and executed: it is not received passively as in the vision of a television program. Finally, games have an addictive component, which risks further potentiating the learning of violent behavior.


In contrast to the previous study, a synthesis of all published research commissioned in 1999 by the Clinton Administration and presented by the Public Health Service resulted in a report (Satcher, 2001). This review of the work concludes that video games about behavior are safe, except for subjects with pre-existing aggressive social and psychological behaviors that are then amplified by addiction to violent video games.


In general, therefore, the research carried out does not establish that video games, even violent, have a negative influence on the behavior of players in real life. The same is true of e-dependence, which is effective, but of which there is no reason to say that it is, like addiction, a “heavy” dependence: no case of violence against oneself or against another one seems to date to have been signaled for cause of “lack”. On the contrary, video games arouse original forms of sociability in the margins of the game.

Sociability from the game: tournaments and clans


Since the development of network and on-line games , communities are created and sometimes meet ” irl ” ( in real life ) on the occasion of week-ends entirely devoted to a tournament in local network: groups of ten to twenty young people gather in a room, each bringing his own computer, sleeping bag and provisions. After an hour or two spent mounting their networked machines, they then play continuously, the participants taking turns to take a break.


There are other types of games related to gambling: national and international events are regularly organized, bringing together hundreds of players on the same site. From 25 to 27 May 2001, for example, a tournament, the Lan Arena 6 , hosted in Paris, under the Ark de la Defense, 1200 players and their computers connected in a huge local network. Four giant screens and ten plasma screens made it possible to follow live games in which French and German clans competed in Quake III , Tournament , Broodwar and Counter-Strike tournaments , all massacre games .The results, published on a site ( ), make it possible to follow the qualifications of the clans with rankings similar to those of the sports field. The comparison does not stop there, since articles appearing in specialized magazines ( Online Gamer, for example) use a narrative style close to that of sports journalism. Sponsors are already present in these tournaments, lending equipment, providing network infrastructure, presenting their stalls and providing prize prizes for the winners. From then on, the ideals of competitive sport (and probably also the risks of drifting) are transposed in these tournaments: the will to win, the cult of the winner, but also the team spirit and the notion of fair play .


In the margins of these encounters and the space of confrontation itself, forms of sociability are developing online and irlrelated games. The players regroup in permanent teams, taking again the theme, the vocabulary and the imagery of the game. They join together within “tribes warriors”, bound by the common will to reach the goal and by the displayed conviction of to be the strongest, the bravest, the best. These “clans” and “guilds” have their own sites, where members and visitors find themselves outside the strict space of games, in a dark or bloody decorum, studded with traditional “Gothic” objects (skulls, bones, swords, axes …) but displaying a community sociality: one for all in the group, all against others outside.


The spirit of the game can not be trapped by the implicit values ​​of the scenarios proposed by the designers. The games of massacre value in first approach the individual alone against all, the “everything is allowed” and the displayed refusal of the order, but the discourse and the practices of the players orient themselves towards the affirmation of the belonging to the a group, the pre-eminence of rules, norms, values ​​inspired by warlike cultures, such as honor, courage, strength, freedom, justice, cooperation … Games whose central theme is the destruction on the other hand, where it can nevertheless be considered honorable to have been “broken apart” by a valuable adversary, thus give rise to sociality in more or less stable groups and in gaming communities where adversaries meet, sympathize, establish relationships of mutual respect. In these cases, the game causes the encounter with the other and this meeting, in return, guarantees the gap between fiction and reality: we kill each other virtually, but it is simply impossible that it is anything other than a game.


While extreme violence is the driving force of the game, the destruction many times of his avatar, normal and inevitable, does not cause bitterness of the player vis-à-vis the opponent. In real life , the atmosphere in the playroom is generally good and laughter is common (“You have got me, you bastard!”). The space of the game, circumscribed by the screen, does not prevent a good-natured sociality outside the game. We regularly observe outside the game a mutual help between players, yet fierce enemies in the arena. Online, many sites welcome novices and provide advice and start-up help. In the world of Quake, a support of “new” network, locally or on the Internet, is also commonplace.


In this context of a sociality that produces its own values, certain behaviors are presented as transgressions, not to the rules of the game itself, but to the codes of “good behavior” of the membership clan or the community of players in general. Swearing, for example, is not uncommon in the heat of the moment; however, xenophobic or sexist insults are a badly accepted aggression not only by those to whom they are addressed but also by the other players present. Cheaters handling the programming code of the game to build their character or falsify scores for their benefit, or worse, that penetrate through hacking techniques, hackingin the computer of another player to change the characteristics of his character, are fingered on the forums and, when they are identified, are excluded both competitions and clans they are part.


In a very general way, the players of massacre games refuse to this kind of abuses and one finds that all is not allowed in these violent virtual universes. The player expects others to respect him as a player, and in fact as a human being, and he usually behaves towards opponents with the same respect that he expects to be expected by them of His part. For the value of the winner to be measured at an undisputed yardstick, fair play , honesty is essential in a game where the odds must be equal for all and where the difference must take place, not by means adulterated, but by comparing individual abilities: speed of reaction, concentration, efficiency and self-control.


Thus, even if he wins in the game, the cheater is in reality a loser: he is ostracized by the community of players because he has excluded himself from the spirit of the game and values ​​shared by all. . Conversely the honest player, even the loser, can cling to a positive image of himself: in his reference system, he recognizes his opponents, not only as enemies, but also as partners sharing the same values, and considers that he is recognized by them in this same place, because he has lost “honorably”. Exchanges on forums that follow competitions confirm this spirit: the winners congratulate the losers for defending themselves valiantly, the losers are proud to have been defeated by valuable opponents. Cheats and bad players are ostracized by the community.


In summary, most players, even protected by their anonymity, are committed to respect the rules imposed by a minimal civility: “serious” insults and cheating are too violent, the crossing of this limit threatens the game itself , which may cease to be a game. The extreme violence staged must remain confined in the fictional space: the majority of the players are clearly aware of it, and the borderline is clear between the battle arena and what happens outside the game, between violent fiction in its forms, inside the game, and a reality-friendly reality, on the sidelines of the game.


These rules of life between players and the exclusion of disrupters thus inscribe an order into these virtual universes which seem initially destined to the expression of the violent and destructive instincts, and thus doomed to chaos. This order is a lived metaphor of what is happening in the real world: just as in reality, surviving and winning in these virtual worlds require effort, work, learning, and very often cooperation to arrive at the result. , to success. The transgressions are punished as in the real world (by disapproval at least and, when possible, by criminalization of the culprit). Violent game players put their behaviors in a frame marked by values ​​that are actually those of the real world.

A new generation of games: the “persistent worlds”


The scientific studies cited above do not take into account a more recent form of these online video games, which have since become increasingly popular and in which the line between fiction and reality is not so clear. It is therefore appropriate to say a few words here, to be complete on the subject.


With the “persistent worlds”, realism and interactivity take on a new dimension. In these games, the game in which the player moves is perpetual. It does not disappear when it disconnects from the Network. And when he reconnects, he finds the character as he left it. The “persistent worlds” are therefore played only online, bringing together tens of thousands of players from around the world in one part: their massively multiplayer mode represents between 100 and 300,000 subscriber accounts depending on the game.


The player embodies a character with special characteristics and skills. He sets out to discover a fantastic medieval world populated by dangerous creatures with evil powers ( Ultima , Everquest , Asheron’s Call , The Fourth Prophecy ). Or it embarks on a space ship to conquer the galaxy and develops its installations on planets, participates in the formation of stellar empires ( Mankind , Starpeace). The violent confrontation is also staged, but with a lesser luxury of bloody details than in the games of massacre: it is more of role-playing games or strategy games, computer successors of table games like Dungeons and Dragons.


Unlike video games whose space is limited to the equivalent of a combat arena in a given time, persistent worlds do not stop: players therefore live permanently with each other in the game , and, in a way, even when they are disconnected, since their characters and installations continue to produce and may be attacked while they are not there. The boundary between play and reality becomes blurred, porous, and the complexity of interactions allows for the emergence of spontaneous forms of sociality that have a ubiquitous existence: just as the clans of massacre video games, the guilds and empires of these “Persistent worlds” have their own websites on other Internet servers, their own forums and occasionally hold meetings in physical locations, a café or the home of one of the members; however, these groups and communities also elect inside the game, where they occupy territories, build institutions and kingdoms, engage in a complex game of struggles and alliances with other communities.


Here, the porosity of the boundary between game space and everyday reality is increased by the time spent developing and communicating with other players. Participants in persistent worlds spend an average of more than 20 hours a week playing in the same game (Nguyen, 2001), which is most of their free time. They call or “email” outside the game. When they are disconnected, they have the opportunity to be notified by the server, on their mobile phone, of an attack on their facilities. Players do not just play in a given time and space: they think about the game, talk about the game, every day in their daily lives.


To these original forms of sociality are attached specific manifestations of violence. This is no longer just an animation show, it is lived, actually inflicted or suffered. It is not physical, of course, in a virtual world, but being robbed or destroying artifacts or installations, even virtual, that took weeks or months to build causes emotions that are real. Unlike massacre games that cause occasional episodes of adrenaline during play and result in a good-natured sociality, the experience in the “persistent worlds” of assaults experienced as such may elicit not only anger or discouragement, but resentment and even hatred. The modalities of violence in these games are therefore both more elaborate, less directly brutal in their staging, and at the same time closer to the reality they feel.


The time spent in the game to build virtual goods that are feared to be lost, the hesitation also to provoke, for the same reasons, the anger and the vengeance of an adversary whose assets one would steal or destroy, arouse in the “Persistent worlds” of regulatory mechanisms in the effective exercise of violence: intimidation, threats, alliances, guild affiliations, negotiations, recourse to third parties. The effective aggression of a player by another player is not the most frequent play situation and, when it occurs, it is conditioned by the necessities of needs and alliances and often obeys codes of honor. or the laws of war, but also to a whole web of diplomatic, strategic, moral, and ideological considerations. Playing involves rules of civility and the deployment of communication and negotiation skills. The prevention and management of violence in the game is therefore in itself forms of learning of sociability [3] [3]  For a more detailed study of specific forms ….

One outstanding question: the derealization of violence


These observations and the studies cited above leave in suspense a question that may not lend itself easily to inquiry-based treatment: that of derealization effects induced by the depiction and staging of violence through synthetic imaging. The problem is not new and has already been studied about the spectacle of violence on television: the daily reception of photos and violent films, relatively identical in their crudity, whether they are programs of information or fiction films, can induce in the viewer a form of feeling of unreality. The spectacle of the death and suffering of others no longer cuts the appetite at mealtime. Similarly, in video games, bursting with mortar or bar with the character of an opponent, which can be indifferently a program managed by the computer or the “avatar” of a real player, generally gives a feeling of undisguised pleasure, whereas on the other hand, the death of his own character is not lived physically as such: we do not really die and we do not even hurt. It is deduced (and it is true) that the destruction of the image of the adversary, even realistically, at the limit of the film reproducing the event, does not mean that the opponent dies “for real”.


In real-life games, group or combat sports, games, even fights, children and teenagers are led to experience in their body limits not to be exceeded. Wounds and bumps punish the error and mark the differentiated relationship to the other. While in online games, the disappearance of the real body (its own body as well as the body of the other) removes a form of tracking. We face the risk mentioned in the introduction: if others can be treated through its “double” infographic as a video game program, is there not a risk of overflow in sanitized practices, abstract, of violence, which can be inflicted without awareness, or rather without identification, of the pain inflicted on the other?


The question is not of the same order as that dealt with by the socio-logical surveys mentioned above. These show that violent video game players do not yield more than others to the temptation of physical violence, between them or in their daily reality. One would even assume that, if they play video games, it is because they prefer to avoid physical violence, or even simply exercise-related fatigue and the risk of injury in physical games. Video games come from this point of view to meet a clientele that is not necessarily sporty, looking for in-room recreation. From this point of view, parents and educators can limit their concerns to problems other than violence, such as the possible lack of physical activity.


But the disturbances induced by the virtual worlds in our apprehension of reality are at least two types (Schmoll, 2001b). When parents and educators stigmatize the risk of specific forms of schizophrenia or solipsism that would provoke too much taste for virtual creatures in video games, they refer to the escape from the real “real”, and to the refuge in synthetic realities, which would result from a tendency to treat simulacra as objects and real beings . But another type of disturbance, the opposite of this one, can also consist of treating reality as having as little consistency as the virtual worlds.. Ph. Quéau (1993) had already pointed out this possibility, which is perhaps even more dangerous, not for young people individually, but for the overall functioning of our societies. Video games appear on the screen in the same way as the military operations on the screen of the command centers of modern armies: for the soldier, the enemy is a “target”, and more and more often, the destruction of the opponent excludes physical contact on the ground and is reduced to the “operator” to experience the disappearance of a flashing dot on its screen.


The media coverage of the Gulf War, presented as a real-time wargame in which death was never directly shown, has become a prime example of how video games can function as a paradigm of modern warfare. . More recently, the electronic hunt conducted by amateur Internet users looking for information on Osama bin Laden and his military-financial network shows that war is becoming an online game. We finally forget that at the end of the connection, people continue to die.

Phobias: Understanding Them to Fight Them Better

Difficult to live calmly when you have a phobia, especially if it ends up taking all the place. Deciphering the mechanism of phobia and tips to overcome it.

Spiders, mice, metro, plane … The inventory at the Prevert objects of our phobias is endless. If sometimes these anxieties can lend to smile, they are for those who are victims of real source of suffering , especially when the enochlophobia gradually takes the place, encroaching on the daily and sometimes confining some people at home, overwhelmed to the idea of ​​confronting themselves with what panics them. How to explain the mechanism of phobia? How, especially, try to get rid of it?

An irrational fear that betrays an inner anguish

The phobia is characterized by ” irrational panic fear described as such, which is carried on an object – spiders, mice, etc. – or a situation – subway, plane , public speaking – external to the individual,” defines Antoine Dupuy , clinical psychologist. On the psychological level, the phobia consists, he explains, of “moving an inner anguish by projecting it onto a particular object thus making it possible to get rid of an internal anxiety that would be unbearable”. “In psychoanalytic language can say that phobia is the symptom of a psychological conflict whose foundations go back to early childhood: a feeling of emotional insecurity, a fear of abandonment or a feeling of lack of love , etc. ”

Phobic people are also aware of the irrational dimension of their fear. “I suspect that the plane I’m going to climb in will not necessarily crash on take-off, but I’ve internalized it as the safest way of transportation. “Do not be convinced every time my last hour arrived and be literally ill, ” says Carole, 43. Ditto for Myriam, who can “be quieted at the sight of a spider”. “I know, thank you, that the little beast will not eat fat, but the mere sight of this beast makes me lose all my common sense, I can not think, I’m panicked.”

Avoidance of the object of phobia, an effective strategy in the short term

Faced with phobia, the first reaction, the most frequent and the most obvious, observes Antoine Dupuy, “is to avoid the object of fear.” We will go on foot or by bike to his appointment if it is public transport that cause anxiety, we will prefer the train for the holidays rather than the plane, the staircase to the elevator, or we will ban the cellars or attics, favorite places for mice and spiders. “This strategy is rather effective, at least initially,” notes Antoine Dupuy. “It helps to survive even if it does not solve the problem. “” For two or three years, I really made sure I did not have to go on a plane. I took all my holidays in France and I refused some business trips. I was not proud, but at least I was no longer in panic, “says Carole.

Only here, explains Antoine Dupuy, it may happen that avoidance or recourse to a “contra-phobic object” (lucky charm, person can accompany us in the subway, etc.) is not enough to calm the anxiety, that it is triggered at the mere “thought of the phobic object”. “One enters an anxiety of anticipation, in the fear of being afraid . The panic attacks can for example be set up because the subject is projected in the situation that causes the body and interprets the slightest sign announcing precisely the crisis. “The phobic is then caught in an infernal gear, where avoidance is no longer a solution, since we can no longer ignore the object of his phobia. and fall back on themselves, isolate themselves and cut themselves off from the world. ”

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies to Alleviate Symptoms

Before reaching such extremes, it is better to act and try to deprogram the phobia. “The most common angle of attack lies in a drug treatment, usually a combination of anxiolytics and antidepressants, ” Antoine Dupuy describes. “It is better that these medications be prescribed by a psychiatrist , who knows their effects and who can offer a real follow-up,” says the psychologist. Above all, he says, the drug solution “may certainly be appropriate in the short term and can interrupt the vicious circle of anxiety but it is not enough to understand the causes of this symptom.”

The cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are for their often very effective “to prevent disorder sets in and take the whole place,” says Antoine Dupuy. “In general, it’s about exposing the person little by little to the object of his phobia.” The exercises are done first by imagination , then concretely in the form of a scenario of usually destabilizing and difficult tasks. The idea is to isolate, then treat the dysfunctional thoughts that cause anxiety.


Arthur, 36, has been successful thanks to a cognitive-behavioral therapy to overcome his uncontrollable fear of the highway. “I could not take an interchange anymore and I had to make all my trips on national, not very practical when it comes for example to make a Paris – Lyon! It took me a dozen of sessions to stop it. ” Lisa, meanwhile, tried EMDR to cure her “emetophobia” , namely the fear of vomiting. After four sessions, she can now “manage the gastros of children without being overwhelmed by anxiety”. Marion finally found comfort in hypnosis: “It may sound silly but I had developed a phobia pigeons.If for others it can make you laugh, for me it was a nightmare, especially as I live in Paris.Hypnosis me a lot pacified “.

Analytical work, to find the meaning of phobia

Caution, warns Antoine Dupuy, with CBT unlike analytical work , we “do not intervene on the causes but on the symptom.” And if the results are often spectacular at first, the risk is great that the phobia moves elsewhere, the inner anxiety still exists. “I thought I had overcome my fear of speaking in public with a coach who was using CBT,” says Charlotte, 37. “It worked for a few months, and then suddenly I had panic attacks as soon as I was in an important work meeting, I felt that maybe I needed to understand what was happening to me and started psychotherapyon the long term. Today I’m starting to get better, in depth. ”

“The analytic work makes it possible to find the meaning of the phobia, to understand the internal conflict responsible for this neurosis “, explains Antoine Dupuy. Far from preaching only for this parish, he suggests ” coupling the different approaches , combining both a work based on CBT and an approach of analytical orientation, sometimes even a drug when the symptoms are too violent”.

We can overcome these phobias, “provided to engage permanently,” concludes the psychologist. But, he adds, “healing is a notion that is used little in psychoanalysis because the psychic functioning or the psychic organization of a person, in this case phobic neurosis also has a ‘benefit’ for the nobody, “as paradoxical as it may appear.” By “profit”, Antoine Dupuy hears the fact that the phobic person wins particular attention from others, sometimes an aid or a company when it decides, by example, to take public transport or the airplane.In general, the phobia being a “displacement” of anguish, it presents especially the interest in making the latter external to oneself. In other words, it may happen that a person has built around this phobia and derives a balance certainly precarious, but real. “That’s why we do not always recover completely, but we can, with the help of therapies,to improve one’s quality of life and to learn about one’s weaknesses to live with.  For more info visit

CRM, Why is This a Key Issue for My Company?

CRM, a reminder

The customer relationship management ( CRM ) is to improve the overall interaction with your prospects and customers.

By adopting a CRM strategy in your business, you take over the leadership of the customer relationship and improve your productivity at all levels.

CRM, to focus on the customer

CRM tools automatically retrieve all information from the interactions your company has with its contacts, collaborators, prospects and customers.

The recovered histories:

  • Physical relations, phone calls, emails, appointments, etc …
  • Digital interactions, on your social networks or on your website
  • Project Relations or Collaborations
  • After Sales Service Tickets
  • Returns on satisfaction surveys or surveys

CRM centralizes all the data visit to hire professional Zoho CRM Consultant, in order to optimize your sales cycles , the commercial actions of conquest and loyalty.

The information is shared in real time, a large number of actions can be automated.

Accessible on smartphones and tablets, connected or not, you have all the information, whatever the place or time.

The commercial activity is particularly followed with the sales forecasts, the evaluation of the chances, the management of the objectives, the commercial competitions, the territories.

The 6 good REAL reasons to adopt a CRM

1 – Have a complete history of all relationships

Centralize all your relationships to better know your customers and ensure a consistent quality of relationship , you gain in productivity and efficiency.

Moreover, if a salesman fails you, you can act and react, you have all the information.

2 – Optimize your sales cycles

Keep track of your customer experiences , duplicate best practices, track and analyze the changing behavior and needs of your customers.

Automatically generate opinions and comments at each stage of your cycle,
understand their issues, needs and utilities, enrich your offers and optimize your customer journey.

Earn more, earn better, adapt and multiply your sales.

3 – Adopt collaborative work

Collaborative platform, make your teams work together thanks to several tools such as project management and chat.

Motivate teams , promote speed and proximity, optimize the productivity of your company, capitalize on cross-experiences to ensure a rise in general competence.

4 – Hire at the right time!

Thanks to its enriched knowledge updated and qualified in real time, CRM allows you to detect among your targets the most qualified prospects on all of your channels (website, social networks, physical contacts)

Automatically trigger commercial actions in order to engage the customer at the right moment with an adapted offer.

For example, when a user visits your site several times, or spends several minutes on the same page, the CRM detects a prospect potential.
You can then automatically trigger a chat to initiate a conversation with him or a form to retrieve his coordinates.

5 – Limit the feeling, follow and share the performance in real time

Collect data throughout your information system, measure the performance of your business at any time.

Access dashboards updated in real time and accessible from everywhere, on computer, tablet, smartphone, sms or internet.

6 – Manage and optimize your social networks

Thanks to CRM, you have a single tool to manage all of your social networks.

It is possible for you to program and publish different content on all your pages at the right time thanks to the intelligent planner.

Follow and engage your environment on social networks with the integrated watch tool. You access what is said about you and you can interact with your influencers.

Access global and specific performance reports from your social networks.

The Transport Problem

The problem of transport to work is not completely new but the trend is confirmed, if you are visiting Melbourne you should hire your transport before arriving for that visit other all networks are often saturated and our ability to adapt tends to run out of steam.


However, this problem is at the heart of the concerns of public and private actors – especially in the Melbourne region – for many years. Some major transport players are even in discussions with large companies to encourage them and help them to telecommute their employees. In short, “Gentlemen, allow your employees to work from home from time to time because we can no longer transport them.” What entrepreneurs seem more and more willing to accept, under certain conditions …

Chauffeur Cars

Investments in infrastructure are very expensive, very complex to implement and belong to the long time. They are necessary, but their natural inertia does not allow them to adapt effectively to changes in population and uses over time.

Possible solutions?

How to envisage a durable and flexible solution, allowing to adapt to a potential new saturation of the networks in 20 years? How can we imagine a solution that will also adapt to changing work patterns and the expectations of younger generations?

In other words, treating the current symptoms does not cure the “chronic disease” and does not respond very aptly to the long-term project of a living ensemble that does not necessarily want to develop and realize itself as its predecessors.

We thus see several solutions, cyclical and structural, and the situations or ambitions of each.

– Some simply choose new modes of transportation to work – walking, cycling, scooter, carpooling, etc. – and bypass the problem. Or decide to leave the big cities, when they can.

– More and more freelancers / freelancers leave their jobs to continue working partially for their former employer, while retaining the freedom – and the associated risk – to accept or refuse the assignments offered to them.

– Telework is growing and will allow more and more employees remaining on permanent contracts to work remotely. They retain their employee benefits and have more flexibility.

– Renewal of smaller entrepreneurial structures occupying areas less traditionally known as office areas also rebates cards a bit. Small and medium-sized businesses set up everywhere in Australia or in more residential and trendy districts. One can imagine that this phenomenon, if it is consolidated, will allow a partial harmonization of the distribution of the economic activity in Australia.

New technologies

All of these solutions, often enabled by new technologies – in a service economy – offer more flexibility and responsiveness in implementation and evolution than just infrastructure investments. They make it possible to soften the transport problem but also respond to the desire for change in the conception of the work and its articulation with a (re) reconciled personal life.

Finally, new technologies make it possible to rationalize business travel by favoring almost exclusively local interventions. In the area of ​​personal services, if enough local demand can be found, local service providers that have demonstrated their effectiveness will not need to travel miles to provide services. This requires an effort to structure and regulate supply and demand at the local level.

Tips for Buying a Corded or Cordless Electric Lawn Mower

In case you’re searching for a temperate yard cutting arrangement that is sheltered, bother free and earth well disposed, at that point an electric grass cutter may be what you require. A contrasting option to conventional fuel controlled yard trimmers, these advanced mower are controlled by power, either straightforwardly through an electric rope (corded electric grass cutters) or by a rechargeable battery unit (cordless electric garden trimmers) housed inside the trimmer deck. When hoping to buy an electric trimmer there various elements you ought to consider as laid out in this article.

lawn mowers

Consider Your Yard Size

The primary thing you ought to consider is your yard estimate. On the off chance that you have a little or general estimated yard (say up to 5000 square feet) at that point a customary electric mower is presumably going to be appropriate for your necessities. On the off chance that you have real estate or an extensive yard, at that point a riding garden cutter or a cordless electric grass trimmer with extra batteries may be a superior choice. On the off chance that you settle on a corded trimmer, you will be limited by the length of the electric string and the accessibility of electrical plugs around your yard. Unless you do have a little yard, battery worked trimmers are a substantially more adaptable choice as you don’t need to stress over dragging along an electric string while at the same time cutting.

Removable Batteries

For cordless electric yard cutter models that offer a removable battery, you ought to have the choice of acquiring extra batteries so you can basically supplant a level battery with a completely charged one to enable you to keep cutting. A removable battery is likewise helpful in the event that you don’t have a power supply in your shed or wherever you store your cutter – you can just take the battery unit out and charge it some place more advantageous.

Watt Hours Rating

Each cordless electric garden trimmer will have a voltage rating, for example, 24 Volt or 36 Volt, and the extent of the cutter’s ‘fuel tank’ is measured in watt hours – the higher the watt hours, the more you can cut for. To figure the watt hours rating for a cutter, basically increase the battery voltage rating by the amp hour rating – this will disclose to you how much power the trimmer battery can convey after some time. Electric garden cutters are not as effective as conventional gas trimmers, but rather they are adequate to take care of business.

lawn mowers

Deck Size

The deck size or cutting swatch of the lawn mower shows the width of grass that you will cut on each pass you make while cutting. So the bigger the deck estimate, the less passes you should make to cut the greater part of your grass! A bigger deck size will for the most part mean a greater cutter, so on the off chance that you are extremely constrained on storage room or unfit to push or handle a substantial trimmer this is something you may need to consider.

Smaller Storage Features

On the off chance that storage room is at a superior, search for a cutter that has a collapsible handle that will overlap down. This will enable you to store the trimmer upright or in little, conservative spaces. Trimmers without this component can take up an astonishing measure of room. Another reward of electric trimmers is that you won’t have to store fuel for the motor, which spares both storage room and cash.

Guarantee Options

Examine the guarantee alternatives accessible – most electric cutters accompany a two year constrained makers’ guarantee, and some will likewise offer a lifetime guarantee on the trimmer deck. It is likely that any issues you may have with the cutter will happen inside the a half year to a year so having a guarantee that spreads you past this underlying time of utilization is a reward.

At long last, cost is frequently the deciding element when making any buy. In the event that you do have a set spending plan, get your work done and dependably endeavor to purchase the best quality item you can manage, as this is probably going to spare you cash on support and repairs in the long haul.

The 9 Best Powers Tool Review


ToolGuyd is a blog that focuses on new tool previews, hand-on reviews, tool guides and the occasional DIY project. ToolGuyd, was Founded in 2008 by Stuart Deutsch, who has a Masters degree in materials science and engineering. ToolGuyd does not accept paid-placements and will only review tools they think are interesting, so you can trust their reviews.


The Professional Power Tool Guide also known as “Tools in Action” features the latest in tool news, reviews, and giveaways. They also have an active forum as well as a tool deals section where they feature particularly good deals on tools like sanders and air compressors. Besides just sharing advice and reviews of tools, Tools in Action also has its Lunch Break section filled with entertaining videos and their Man Stuff section with all sorts of reviews of products such as beer chillers and portable gas grills specifically for Men.

power tools


Pro Tool Reviews is an online magazine rather than a blog, which has been posting reviews and tool news since its creation in 2008. Pro Tool Reviews is written by professional tradesmen like electricians, plumbers, HVAC techs, and general contractors for other professional tradesmen rather than the do it yourselfer. Their tagline says it all: Professional tool reviews written by professionals for professionals. That’s Pro Tool Reviews. If you’re looking for professional grade reviews from working tradesmen, this is the blog for you.


Home Construction and Improvement was created by full time custom home builder Todd Fratzel. Home Construction and Improvement provides accurate, reliable information for homeowners, DIY’ers and more. Besides expert advice, the site also features product reviews, and sponsored home improvement projects. If you’re interested in the right tools for your home improvement projects, this is a great blog to start with.

power tools


Another project of custom home builder Todd Fratzel is Toolbox Buzz. Toolbox Buzz is specifically for serious tool junkies and features reviews of everything from power tools to lawn and garden tools with everything in between. Toolbox Buzz is a great site if you’re looking for the latest most up to date tool reviews out there!


A Concord Carpenter is the blog of Rob Robillard, a general contractor, carpenter, woodworker and owner of a carpentry and renovation business in Concord Massachusetts. On his blog, Rob covers every aspect of home improvement, woodworking and remodeling. He prides himself on his ability to problem solve for remodeling and home maintenance jobs and his tool reviews. The Concord Carpenter’s motto is “well done is better than well said.”


One of the newest blogs on this list, Real Tool Reviews was founded in 2014 as a YouTube channel. Real Tool Reviews covers every type of tool from automotive, construction, DIY and much more. If there’s a type of tool out there, chances are Real Tool Review has reviewed it. Real Tool Reviews is currently the fastest growing YouTube tool review channel and the most popular tool review channel on Instagram. The site also features tools specifically made in the USA, and offers giveaways.

Power tools


Workshop Addict is a forum for tool lovers which features an excellent blog complete with tool reviews, guides, and comparison articles sure to help you pick the best tools for whatever job you may be working on. Workshop addict’s forums offers a variety of different topics covering from tool reviews to welding and metalworking, there is something for everyone.



Home Fixated is a tool review, news and tips blog written in a humorous tone. Home Fixated focuses on their beloved power tools, and features monthly “bribes” in the form of free tools and prizes. Home fixated aspires to be your definitive resource for home improvement info, awesome tools, and innovative home products. If you like the humor of Adam Carolla, then you’ll love the humor on Home Fixated!

Difference between Rechargeable battery and Battery

Batteries are just a set of electrochemical cells that generate electricity by converting the stored chemicals and energy into electrical energy, however, there are different types of batteries in the market and; although many people do not know what makes them different it is good to understand the difference between them, so that at the right time we can choose the type of battery that suits us best.

Difference between Battery and Rechargable Battery

If you have doubts about this subject or just go for a little more information, continue reading, because then we explain to you what is the difference between rechargeable battery and battery.

Normal Batteries

Normal batteries come in various shapes and sizes. They were created in the year 1799 and it is credited to an Italian physicist named Alessandro Volta to have discovered the process to create them. Originally he created a battery using metal plates and cardboard or brine paper.

Each battery consists of two terminals called cathode and anode, the first being the positive and the second negative. These terminals are connected and form a circuit.

The electrochemical reactions taking place in the cells generate a flow of electrons from the anode to the cathode. There are also two types of batteries: disposable; also known as secondary batteries (which are supposed to be used only for a period of time) and rechargeable batteries.

Chargeable battery

On the other hand, the rechargeable batteries are not supposed to be used only once; but even if they get exhausted their energy can be connected to some source and get it back.

Generally, rechargeable batteries must be charged before use. They usually have certain active materials in their discharge states, for this reason it is necessary to connect the batteries to the electric current to recharge them before they can be used.

Once connected to a source of electricity, the rechargeable batteries receive the current that is pushed through their cells in the direction opposite to the energy source. What this current does is basically activate the chemicals stored in these batteries to thereby give rise to some reactions that occur while these batteries are used in any application.